PART 4: AD 700-804

There are few certain records of events in 8th century Britain.
This is an attempt to reconcile what does exist with later retrospective records and traditions.

700 - King Gerren of Dumnonia receives a letter from St. Aldhelm, Abbot of Malmesbury, during his attendance at a Church Synod in Wessex. He insists that the Celtic Church of Dumnonia comply with the doctrines of Rome, as agreed with the Northern Celtic Church thirty-six years previously at the Synod of Whitby.

c.700 - Death of Bishop Euddogwy of Llandeilo Fawr. He is succeeded by Bishop Berthwyn.

c.705 - Death of King Cadwgan of Dyfed & Brycheiniog. He is succeeded by his son, Rhain, and the dual-kingdom slowly becomes known as Rhainwg in his honour. Death of King Ithel of Glywysing & Gwent. He is succeeded by his brother, Morgan. King Gerren of Dumnonia grants land at Maker to Sherborne Abbey in an attempt to strengthen his position in the disputed regions of Dorset.

710 - King Gerren of Dumnonia clashes with King Ine of Wessex who manages to establish a fortress at Taunton.

c.710 - King Seisyll of Ceredigion invades the Dyfed section of Rhainwg and conquers Ystrad Towi to create the greater kingdom of Seisyllwg. King Rhain of Rhainwg therefore has his kingdom sliced in two. He rules Dyfed directly and allows his brother, Awst, to rule in Brycheiniog. Death of King Morgan of Glywysing & Gwent. He is succeeded by his son, Ithel.

712 - Death of King Idwal Iwrch of Gwynedd, who had spent 49 years battling the Anglo-Saxons. He is succeeded by his son, Rhodri Molwynog.

717 - Death of St.Winnoc, Abbot of Wormhout.

c.720 - Contact between the Welsh Church and Yvi of Brittany is the last known link between the two Celtic countries. After this, each nation goes its own separate way. Prince Sandde moves the exiled royal house of South Rheged from Powys to Ynys Manaw when he married the island kingdom's heiress, Princess Celemion.

722 - King Ine of Wessex attempts a takeover of Dumnonia. His armies are crushed at the Battle of Heilyn (perhaps Helland) in Cornwall and have to withdraw. Death of King Beli of Strathclyde. His son, Teudebur, succeeds to the Throne. The Britons defeat the Anglo-Saxons at the Battle of Pencoed (possibly Castell Pen-y-Coed at Eglwycummin, west of Laugharne in Dyfed). The Britons defeat the Anglo-Saxons (possibly Mercians) at the Battle of Garthmaelog (either at Llanbister in Powys or near Llantrisant in Glamorgan).

730 - The First Battle of Mynydd Carn, near Templeton in Dyfed.

c.730 - Gwrfan is apppointed Bishop of Gwent & Ergyng.

c.731 - King Elisedd of Powys expels the Mercians from his kingdom.

c.735 - Death of King Rhain of Rhainwg. His kingdom, already physically divided, is now politically split between his sons, Tewdws, who takes Dyfed, and Tewdwr, who takes Brycheiniog. Their uncle, Awst refuses to give up Brycheiniog and civil war ensues. Awst is slain but Tewdwr is persuaded to live in peace with Awst's son, Elwystl.

c.740 - Death of King Iudgual of Ynys Manaw. He is succeeded by his nephew, Prince Elidyr, the heir of the dispossessed House of South Rheged.

743 - Kings Aethelbald of Mercia and Ceolred of Wessex join forces to attack Gwent and Powys.

c.744 - Construction of Wat's Dyke. The border between Mercia and Powys is set here.

c.745 - Death of King Ithel of Glywysing & Gwent. He is succeeded by his four sons: Ffernfael takes on Gwent, Rhys, Rhodri & Meurig take a portion of Glywysing each: probably Gwyr (Gower), Gorfynedd and Penychen-Senghenydd but who held which is unkknown. Abbot Samson II of Llanilltud Fawr erects the 'Pillar of Samson' to King Ithel's memory. Death of Bishop Berthwyn of Llandeilo Fawr. He is succeeded by Bishop Terchan.

c.748 - Death of King Meurig of Glywysing. His brothers, Rhys and Rhodri absorb his share of the kingdom.

750 - The Strathclyde Britons under King Teudebur defeat Prince Talorgen II of the Picts at the Battle of Mugdock (alias Maesedawg). Decline of the power of King Angus I of the Picts.

c.750 - King Tewdwr of Brycheiniog breaks the peace with his cousin, Elwystl, and murders him.

752 - Death of King Teudebur of Strathclyde. His son, Dumnagual, succeeds to the Throne and promptly loses Kyle to King Eadberht of Northumbria.

754 - Death of King Rhodri Molwynog of Gwynedd. His son, King Cynan Dindaethwy, nominally succeeds to the Throne, but he is very young and Caradog ap Meirion (of the House of Rhos) soon usurps the throne of Gwynedd

756 - Kings Angus I of the the Picts and Eadberht of Northumbria mount a successful attack on King Dumnagual of Strathclyde at Dumbarton Rock and force him to submit to their overlordship. However, nine days later, Eadberht's entire force is wiped out, possibly by the Britons or perhaps by the treacherous Picts, at the Battle of Ouania (perhaps the River Avon in West Lothian).

c.759 - Death of Bishop Tercan of Llandeilo Fawr. He is succeded by Bishop Cadwared.

760 - The Battle of Hereford is fought probably between the Mercians and the Kingdom of Brycheiniog under King Tewdwr. Death of King Dumnagual of Strathclyde. He is succeeded by his son, Ywain.

c.765 - Death of King Tewdws of Dyfed. He is succeeded by his son, Maredudd. Elfoddw is appointed Bishop of Bangor. Death of King Rhodri of Glywysing. His brother Rhys absorbs his portion of Glywsying & now rules the whole kingdom.

768 - Bishop Elfoddw of Bangor persuades the Welsh Church to accept the Roman dating of Easter as agreed by the Northern British Church at the Synod of Whitby.

c.770 - Death of King Tewdwr of Bycheiniog. He is succeeded by his son, Nowy Hen. Death of King Rhys of Glywysing. He is succeeded by his son, Arthfael. Death of Bishop Gwrfan of Gwent & Ergyng. His successor is unknown.

775 - Death of King Ffernfael of Gwent. He is succeeded jointly by his sons, Gwrgauarn and Athrwys.

777 - King Offa of Mercia's army raid deep into Wales and harry the men of Seisyllwg and Dyfed.

780 - King Offa of Mercia's army raids Wales again. King Ywain of Strathclyde's court at Dumbarton Rock is sacked. Enemy unknown.

784 - Construction of Offa's Dyke, the artificial bank and ditch boundary between England and Wales, is begun at the command of King Offa of Mercia.

c.785 - Death of Bishop Cadwared of Llandeilo

Fawr. His successor is unknown.

c.788 - Death of King Ywain of Strathclyde. He is succeeded by his son, Riderch.

c.790 - Death of King Nowy Hen of Brycheiniog. He is succeeded bby his son, Gruffudd.

796 - Death of King Maredudd of Dyfed. He is succeeded by his son, Rhain.

797 - Welsh forces, including those of Powys and Dyfed, clash with the Mercians at the Battle of Rhuddlan, when King Coenwulf tries to re-assert his domination of North-East Wales. The Mercians push on westward.

798 - King Caradog of Gwynedd is killed fighting the Mercians of King Coenwulf in Snowdonia. King Cynan Dindaethwy retakes the throne, much to the disappointment of Caradog's son, Hywel Farf-Fehinog.

Part 5: AD 805-937


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